Indian raja of the Marathas (1674–80). In 1659 he raised a Hindu revolt against Muslim rule in Bijapur, southern India, inflicting a crushing defeat on the army of the sultan of Bijapur. Shivaji was later captured by the Mogul emperor Aurangzeb, but escaped in 1666 and proceeded to expand Maratha territory. He had himself crowned raja in 1674; during his reign he enforced religious toleration throughout the Maratha empire and blocked Mogul expansionism by forming an alliance with the sultans in the south.
Subjects: World History.