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Consultation. Based on Quranic injunction to Muhammad to consult with his followers (3:159) and to Muslims to consult with each other in conducting their affairs (42:38). Modern scholars consider shura to be the basis for the implementation of democracy. Liberal scholars argue that shura declares the sovereignty of people in electing representative leaders to democratic instutitions designed to act in the public interest. For conservative thinkers, shura must be based on the principle of the ultimate sovereignty of God and geared toward implementation of traditional Islamic law.

Subjects: Islam.

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