In inferential statistics, any test designed to determine whether an alternative hypothesis achieved the required level of statistical significance to justify being accepted in preference to the null hypothesis. In a classical null hypothesis significance test, the null hypothesis is provisionally assumed to be true, and a calculation is then made of the probability of obtaining a result as extreme as the one actually obtained. If the probability is sufficiently small (by convention this significance level is often set at p < .05), the investigator is justified in rejecting the null hypothesis and therefore also in accepting its logical negation, namely the alternative hypothesis. Also called a statistical test.
Subjects: Science and Mathematics — Sociology.