Iranian statesman and modernizing politician under Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar (d. 1896). Served in India and Russia. Appointed ambassador to Istanbul, minister of justice, minister of war, then prime minister (1871–73). Believed in the modernization and westernization of Iran. Introduced administrative, military, and legal reforms. Promoted the railroad concession to Baron Julius de Reuter. Removed from office under pressure from opponents of reforms and the concession.