Cambridge-born Australian philosopher. Smart emigrated from England to Australia in 1950, and subsequently held appointments at a number of universities, including the Australian National University. In general philosophy, Smart has been influential in Australia and internationally as a leading scientific realist and materialist, whilst in ethics his staunch defence of utilitarianism has provided landmarks both for defenders and assailants. He was also an early defender of a block universe view of time. His books include Philosophy and Scientific Realism (1963), Utilitarianism: For and Against (with Bernard Williams, 1973), and Essays Metaphysical and Moral (1987).