Samuel Smiles

(1812—1904) biographer and didact

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Manchester School

Matthew Arnold (1822—1888) poet, writer, and inspector of schools

Alexander James Carlyle (1861—1943) historian and social reformer

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devoted his leisure to the advocacy of political and social reform, on the lines of the Manchester School, and to the biography of industrial leaders and humble self‐taught students. He published a Life of George Stephenson (1875), Lives of the Engineers (1861–2), Josiah Wedgwood (1894), and many similar works, but is now principally remembered for his successful Self‐help (1859), which preached industry, thrift, and self‐improvement, and attacked ‘over‐government’.

Subjects: Literature.

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