born in Pennsylvania, educated at the University of Iowa (B.A., 1949), where he also did graduate work, has taught English and speech at Syracuse (1968–). He is known for the fine craftsmanship and deep feeling of his first collection of poems, Heart's Needle (1959, Pulitzer Prize), whose title work, about a father's love for a daughter he can see only infrequently, is perhaps autobiographical but has universality in its theme of separation. Later works, also marked by formal technique and personal revelation, include After Experience (1968), incorporating translations of Rilke; Gallows Songs of Christian Morgenstern (1967); The Führer Bunker (1977), poems on the end of the Third Reich in the voices of major Nazis; and If Birds Build with Your Hair (1982), modern pastorals. Six Troubadour Songs (1977) prints translations. In Radical Pursuit (1975) collects essays and lectures on poetry.