Compare psychological effects.
1. Any social changes attributed to specific causes: see also social determinism.
2. In relation to media, social influences or implications of the mass media or new media of communication—one focus of academic media research and theory within the effects tradition. McLuhan's notion that ‘the medium is the message’ refers in part to the social ‘impact’ of new media. For instance, in relation to the historical advent of printing, McLuhan argued deterministically that ‘socially, the typographic extension of man brought in nationalism, industrialism, mass markets, and universal literacy and education’. See also media determinism.