An interdisciplinary research field devoted to the understanding of behaviour and experience at three levels of analysis: the social level, including both motivational and social factors; the cognitive level, focusing on information-processing mechanisms influencing social-level phenomena; and the neural level, concerned with brain mechanisms underlying cognitive-level processes. This approach typically involves brain imaging and neuropsychological methods to test social psychological phenomena, with cognitive psychology bridging the neural and the social. It became widely recognized as an independent field of research in 2001, after a conference at the University of California, Los Angeles, organized by the US psychologist Matthew D. Lieberman (born 1970) and others, and the first wave of research in the field was reviewed in an article in the journal American Psychologist later in the same year by the US psychologists Kevin N. Ochsner (born 1969) and Matthew Lieberman. The term first appeared in print in 2000 in two simultaneous publications: an article by Matthew Lieberman and a book chapter by Kevin Ochsner. Compare social neuroscience.