An integrative field devoted to the study of the nervous system, the endocrine system, and the immune system in social psychological phenomena. It focuses on neural, hormonal, and immunological processes as both causes and effects of such phenomena-how the brain influences social processes and how social processes influence the brain. It incorporates social cognitive neuroscience but is potentially wider in scope, including as it does non-cognitive processes. Also called social psychophysiology. This approach rose to prominence at the beginning of the third millennium, and a special issue of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (Volume 85, Number 4) was devoted to it in 2003.