Lutheran Bp. of Uppsala from 1914. He supported the Ecumenical Movement and was the leading figure in the Stockholm Conference on ‘Life and Work’ (1925); his aim was to organize practical cooperation between the Churches, especially on social questions, without consideration of doctrinal differences.
In The Nature of Revelation (1903; Eng. tr., 1933) he defended the position of higher criticism, maintaining that the scientific study of the history of religion will lead to a sure knowledge of God; he criticized the dogma of the two natures in Christ as unacceptable to modern man, and he maintained that God's revelation is restricted neither to the Bible nor to the Church, but continues throughout history.