When war broke out in August 1542 between Henry VIII and his nephew James V of Scotland, an English raid was defeated at Hadden Rig. James then assembled a large army for a counter‐stroke towards Carlisle. His troops under Oliver Sinclair moved south along the Esk valley. On 24 November, at Solway Moss, they were surprised and routed by a much smaller English force, led by Thomas Wharton, Thomas Dacre, and John Musgrave. The defeat broke the spirit of James, already in poor health.
Subjects: British History.