The extent of an area, usually expressed in terms of the Earth's surface. The term spatial derives from this meaning; and spatial relationships are at the heart of geography. ‘ “Space” refers to the operational dynamics of a network: across space, over time, at a variety of scales, from the body to the neighborhood, to the region, and across nations’ (Ettlinger and Bosco (2004) Antipode 36, 2). D. Massey (2005) sees space as lived experience: ‘one important aspect of space is that it is the dimension of things (and people) existing at the same moment. If time is the dimension of change then space is the dimension of simultaneity. Space is the dimension of all these things happening at once. Space is the dimension, then, that presents us with the existence of others.’
Y.-F. Tuan (1997) contends that a space requires a movement from a place to another place. Similarly, a place requires a space to be a place. ‘Hence, the two notions are co-dependent.’ Thrift in S. Holloway et al. (2003) writes that ‘place refers to the process whereby spaces are ordered in ways that open up affective and other embodied potentials’. See also Sanders (2008) PHG32, 2.
‘Absolute space is fixed and we record or plan events within its frame…the relational view of space holds there is no such thing as space or time outside of the processes that define them…. Processes do not occur in space but define their own spatial frame’ (D. Harvey2006). Raper and Livingstone (1995) Int. J. GIS 9 distinguish between absolute space, which is geometrically indexed, and relative space, which is object oriented; ‘ “space” refers to the operational dynamics of a network: across space, over time, at a variety of scales, from the body to the neighborhood, to the region, and across nations’ (Ettlinger and Bosco (2004) Antipode 36, 2).
Mark and Freundschuh (1997) Trans. GIS 2, 4 identify ‘at least five types of spaces…because for most if not all human cultures, there are different kinds of spaces, applied to different situations or phenomena, that are conceptualized in different ways’. Every society uses its space differently, both artistically and technologically: ‘Europeans have a notion of time and space that is generally assumed by them to be universal. This gratuitous assumption is naive, arrogant, and wrong’ (Hopgood (1993) AGOCG Tech. Report 24). ‘Space is used as a site and mechanism for gendered relationships of power’ (Corroto (2001) J. Arch. Educ. 55, 2).
Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.