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1. A person who watches and listens to a public performance or sporting event, usually with reference to those attending rather than the viewers of broadcast coverage. A common connotation is that spectators watch without actively participating (which neglects emotional and cognitive involvement).

2. (film spectator) In psychoanalytical and structuralist film theory, a relatively passive viewing subject constituted through the adoption of an ideal ‘*subject position’ anticipated by the filmic text. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as cinematic spectatorship: see also cinematic apparatus; ideal reader; interpellation; positioning; suture; viewing subjects.

3. In cognitive film theory, a viewer engaged in the active interpretation of a film: see also active audience theory.

4. An individual viewer of a film: an actual member of a film audience, usually in the specific social context of a cinema. This is normal usage in empirical studies of film audiences.

Subjects: Media Studies.

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