Staphylococcus aureus produces five membranolytic toxins, four haemolysins (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta) and leucocidin. Alpha-toxin (293 aa) is a pore-forming toxin that preferentially attacks platelets and cultured monocytes. Beta-toxin is a Mg2+magnesium-dependent sphingomyelinase C. The gamma-toxin locus expresses three proteins, two class S components (HlgA and HlgC) and one class F component (HlgB) which form S/F heterodimers, have potent proinflammatory effects, and may be important in pathogenesis of toxic shock syndrome. Delta-toxin is a small peptide (26 aa) that is very amphipathic and surface active and has properties similar to melittin.
Subjects: Medicine and Health.