## Quick Reference

**Symbol****Reference**

∼ has the same distribution as

| conditional, e.g. *A* occurs given that *B* occurs

B(*n*, *p*) binomial distribution with parameters *n* and *p*

Cov(*X*, *Y*) covariance of the random variables *X* and *Y*

E(*X*) expected value of the random variable *X*

F cumulative distribution function

f probability density function

G probability-generating function

*G* 2 likelihood-ratio goodness-of-fit statistic

H0, H1 null and alternative hypotheses

M moment-generating function

N(*μ*, *σ*2) normal distribution (mean *μ*, variance *σ*2)

*n* sample size

P probability (of an event)

*p* probability value

*r* product-moment correlation coefficient; residual

*s* 2 sample variance given by

Σ*j*(*x**j*−*x̄*)2/(*n*−1).

Var(*X*) variance of the random variable *X*

*X*, *Y* random variables

*X* 2 chi-squared test statistic

*x* an observation

*x̄* sample mean

*x* (*j*) an ordered observation, e.g. *x*(1)≤*x*(2)≤…

*x̄*-*j*, *x̂*-*j* values calculated omitting observation *j*

*ŷ* an estimate of *y*

*Z* random variable (often standard normal random variable)

From *A Dictionary of Statistics* in Oxford Reference.

*Subjects:*
Probability and Statistics.

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