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A training machine on which movements similar to running are performed. The exerciser pushes up and down against steps. Resistance is provided by air pressure, so impact forces are low, and there is little risk of stress injuries to bones and joints. Exercise on steppers is good training for active sports such as skiing because it strengthens the quadriceps, hamstrings, and calf muscles in the legs. Resistance is easily varied by changing the air pressure. It is usually set at a low level for developing aerobic fitness, but should be higher to develop muscle endurance. Many steppers are computerized so that stepping frequency, work levels, calories burnt, and duration of exercise can be controlled easily. Some machines have additional gadgets for monitoring pulse rate.

Subjects: Medicine and Health.

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