(b Vienna, 1883; d Zurich, 1968). Austrian-born conductor (Amer. cit.). Recommended by Mahler to Schuch, who engaged him at Dresden Opera 1907–8. 2nd cond. Kassel court opera 1913; 1st cond. Berlin Opera 1916–23; cond. Vienna Volksoper 1924–5 (f.p. of Die glückliche Hand, 1924); Berlin Städtische Oper 1928–33. Mus. dir., Leningrad PO 1934–7. Went to USA 1938. Cond. f.p. of Schoenberg's 2nd Chamber Sym. 1940. Cond., New Opera Co., NY, 1941, Chicago 1945–6, NY Met 1946–58, being prin. Wagner cond. but, as in Berlin, cond. major Verdi prods. Cond. Glyndebourne 1947; CG 1953–4. Retired to Zurich.
From The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music in Oxford Reference.