Second oldest sym. orch. in USA, founded in St Louis, Missouri, March 1881. Complement of about 100 musicians. Since 1968 has played in Powell Symphony Hall. Prin. conds. have incl. Joseph Otten, Alfred Ernst, Max Zach, Rudolph Ganz, Vladimir Golschmann (1931–58), Edouard van Remoortel (1958–62), Eleazar Carvalho (1963–8), Walter Süsskind (1968–75), Jerzy Semkow (1976–9), Leonard Slatkin (1979–95), Hans Vonk (1996–2002), David Robertson from 2002. St Louis also has thriving operatic life.