See also auteur theory; classical Hollywood cinema; Fordism; horizontal integration; media ownership; star system; vertical integration.
1. From the 1920s, a collection of commercial companies based in Hollywood and New York and including Metro Goldwyn Meyer, Paramount, Warner Brothers, and 20th Century Fox, that regarded films primarily as moneymaking products and controlled every aspect of their financing, production, marketing, distribution, and exhibition. In The Hollywood Studio System (1986), Douglas Gomery, an American film historian, claims that the studio system was based on a business model first developed in the 1910s by the controller of Paramount, Adolph Zukor (1873–1976).
2. A standardized approach to mass-producing films, such as dividing the film-making process into specialist departments and controlling stars and technicians by keeping them under exclusive contracts.