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Is the traditional term for a workplace characterized by extended or intense physical labour, poor and unsafe working conditions, and low wages. It is a term that continues to be used widely and in recent years has been applied to two particular circumstances. The first is the degradation of work and employment conditions in advanced, developed economies, which commentators have attributed to deregulation, globalization, the collapse of union power and migration. For example, work in the USA's deregulated trucking industry has been characterized as ‘sweatshops on wheels’. The second is the nature of work and employment conditions in branch plants in emerging economies, which produce manufactured, often branded, goods for Western multinationals. The campaigning group, No Sweat, for instance, has highlighted the plight of clothing, footwear, and other workers in the supply chains of well-known US and European companies.

Subjects: Human Resource Management.

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