Islamic reform theorist and founder of the Republican Brothers in Sudan. Trained as an engineer; a self-taught expert in religion. Jailed in the 1940s for nationalist activities, he later led a group advocating a socioeconomic system based on an understanding of Islam that distinguished between the universal application of the revelations of the Meccan period and the specific revelations said to be valid only for life in Medina. His group was small and had little power, but his ideas received much attention. During the final days of the Numayri regime he was executed for heresy.