Type of perc. instr. of Arab orig. but known in Europe before 1300. Small, shallow, single‐headed drum; ‘jingles’ (circular metal discs) are inserted into its wooden frame. It can be played by (a) hitting the head with knuckles, clenched fist, or back of the hand, or by striking it on the player's knee; (b) shaking it so that the jingles rattle; (c) rubbing a thumb along the edge to cause a tremolo from the jingles; (d) playing near rim with fingers or sticks. Mozart used the tambourine in his German Dances (K571, 1787) and it was also used by Weber and Berlioz, and often since then, especially in scenes of revelry, etc.