James Napper Tandy

(1737—1803) Irish nationalist

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(c.1737–1803). Variously described as ironmonger and land agent, Tandy was a prominent patriot activist in guild and corporation politics, commander of artillery for the city's Volunteers, and leader in 1784 of the more aggressive and plebeian campaign for parliamentary reform, protectionism, and a limited Catholic franchise that succeeded the main Volunteer agitation. Approached by Tone and Russell, he convened the Dublin branch of the United Irish movement and became its first secretary. When an attempt to establish contact with the Defenders exposed him to capital charges, he fled to America (1793) and then France (1797), where his rivalry with Tone divided the Irish radical exiles. In 1798 he sailed as commander of the Anacréon, with supplies for Humbert. On 16 September the expedition landed briefly on Rutland Island (see conyngham, william) but withdrew on learning of Humbert's defeat. Tandy's arrest in neutral Hamburg in November provoked a diplomatic controversy. He was returned to Ireland, convicted, and sentenced to death, but deported to France in 1802.

From The Oxford Companion to Irish History in Oxford Reference.

Subjects: European History.

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