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God-consciousness or God-fearing piety. Also rendered as “god-fearing,” “right conduct,” “virtue,” “wariness.” Taqwa and its derivatives appear more than 250 times in the Quran; Abu al-Ala Mawdudi (d. 1979) identified taqwa as the basic Islamic principle of God-consciousness, together with brotherhood, equality, fairness, and justice, on which the true Islamic society is established. Sayyid Qutb (d. 1966) systematically elaborated the significance of taqwa in his Quranic commentary, which is characterized by an emphasis on political activism. Fazlur Rahman (d. 1988) identified it as “perhaps the most important single concept in the Quran,” an inner vision that helps humans overcome their weaknesses.

Subjects: Islam.

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