Mandatory tests in literacy, numeracy, and information communication technology undertaken by all trainee teachers intending to teach in the primary or secondary sectors of education. They are designed to ensure that all teachers gaining qualified teacher status (QTS) possess an appropriate level of skill in these three key areas. The introduction of the tests was proposed in the 2000 Green Paper Teachers: Meeting the Challenge of Change, and the tests were first implemented during the academic year 2001/2. The tests are taken and assessed electronically, and all trainee teachers must successfully complete all three before they can be awarded QTS. The equivalent for teachers' training for the further education sector are the minimum core tests. There is currently no national key skills assessment required of teachers entering the higher education sector.