One of the founding fathers of Peruvian archaeology, educated in science and medicine in Peru and in anthropology at Harvard University in the US. He excavated many important sites in Peru, including Chavín de Huantár, Paracas, and Pachacamac. He argued that the Chavín was the first major civilization in the Andes, a view that was widely held until the 1990s. In 1945 he founded what later became the National Museum of Anthropology and Archaeology in Lima. Following his death in 1947 he was buried in the museum grounds.
American Antiquity, 14 (1948), 50–56