A quality in the landscape. Primary terrain attributes can be computed directly from topographic data and secondary terrain attributes combine primary attributes (see I. D. Moore et al. 1991). Schmidt and Dikau (in R. Dikau and H. Sourer, eds 1999) argue that this primary–secondary distinction is insufficient in representing subtle, but fundamental, differences among topographic characteristics. The function of topography is usually scale and landscape dependent (see W. H. Zhang (2000) and Florinsky and Kuryakova (2000) Int. J. Geog. Info. Sci. 12).
Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.