General transcription factors (TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF, TFIIG/TFIIJ, and TFIIH) involved in the activity of RNA polymerase II and formation of the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex. TFIID is a multicomponent transcription factor that recognizes and binds to the TATA-box promoter with the TATA-binding protein (TBP) subunit and has several TBP-associated factors (or TAFs). TFIID nucleates the transcription complex, recruiting the rest of the factors through a direct interaction with TFIIB. TFIIA interacts with the TBP subunit of TFIID and aids in the binding of TBP. TFIIB forms a complex with TFIID and TFIIA and bridges between IID and the polymerase. Mutations in TFIIB cause a shift in the transcription start site. TFIIE regulates initiation of transcription, TFIIF helps recruit polymerase II to the initiation complex in collaboration with TFIIB. TFIIH consists of ten subunits: some have helicase and ATPase activities, some phosphorylate serine residues in the polymerase, others are associated with cell cycle control. TFIIH is also involved in nucleotide excision repair. Other components ( TFIIG, TFIIJ ) also associate with the complex. TFIIX is a general name for various TBP accessory proteins.
Subjects: Medicine and Health.