Indian scholar and author. Student of the Deoband theological school who sought to bring Islamic values to less-educated Muslims. His most famous work, the ten-volume Bihishti zevar (Heavenly ornaments), provided a guide in Urdu for the education of Muslim women that demonstrated a new concern that they learn Islamic values. Although he considered women inherently equal to men in ability, Thanawi upheld subordinate familial roles for women as part of a stable social order. Supporter of the Muslim League and the movement to create the state of Pakistan. Practiced a reformed Sufism.