A ubiquitous protein (104 aa) that participates in various redox reactions through the reversible oxidation of its active centre dithiol to a disulphide and catalyses dithiol–disulphide exchange reactions. The active site (Trp-Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys) is common to bacterial and eukaryotic thioredoxins. Secreted by various cells, despite the lack of a signal sequence. Adult T-cell leukaemia-derived factor is an isoform of thioredoxin and is an autocrine growth factor produced by HTLV-1 or EBV-transformed T-cells that will upregulate interleukin 2 receptor-a (IL-2Ra).
Subjects: Chemistry — Medicine and Health.