(b Bernau im Schwarzwald, 2 Oct. 1839; d Karlsruhe, 7 Nov. 1924).
German painter. Early in his career he specialized in landscapes—mainly scenes from his native Black Forest—and these are now considered his best works. Later he turned to figurative subjects, including Wagnerian themes; these won him an immense reputation in his day, but are now considered rather ponderous. The largest collection of his works is in the Kunsthalle in Karlsruhe, of which he was director from 1899.