A work of synthesis of previous hierarchical models such as the hierarchy of effects, the dissonance hierarchy (which examined advertising as a method to counteract cognitive dissonance (conation-affect-cognition)), and the low-involvement hierarchy, which focused on the significant effect of repetition in advertising (cognition-conative-affect). Developed in 1973 by Michael Ray, the model states that all three hierarchies can coexist in a single multi-dimensional model. Different hierarchies would dominate in different situations and depending on different circumstances. Using the different labels: Cognition (for learning and understanding of the product or service; C); Behaviour (or action/choice of purchase; B); and Attitude (the emotional response to the product; A). Ray formulated the three types of hierarchy into a single model that was related to different hierarchies for different types of purchase. The learning hierarchy was characteristic of products in which the consumer was highly involved in the purchase and had to choose between numerous alternative products. In order to make a final, appropriate, and satisfying choice and purchase the consumer must to enter into a ‘learning’ or cognition process (C) then develop an emotional response to the product through the learning (A) and then move to a purchase (B). The dissonance-attribution hierarchy was the reverse of the learning model. Here the decision is made without learning and occurs first (B), then is followed by the formation of reinforcing attitude (A). Cognition (C) occurs last, and only selectively in order to legitimize the choice and the behaviour. Ray describes this hierarchy as relevant to high-involvement purchases where nearly indistinguishable alternative products are present. Finally, The low-involvement hierarchy is relevant to low-involvement products with minimal differences among alternative products. Cognition (C) takes place first, chiefly by means of frequent repetition of a message, followed by choice (B), and finally the formulation of an attitude (A) about the product. See also advertising; aida; dagmar; marketing communications; purchasing.
Three Orders Model based on Michael Ray (1973).
Reproduced courtesy of marketingteacher.com