Algerian founder of the Tijani Sufi order. Initially introduced a revived Khalwati order into the Maghreb. Had a visionary encounter with Muhammad in 1782 in which he was taught a new, independent tariqah and instructed to sever relations with other orders and shaykhs. Warmly received by those seeking to eradicate popular Sufism, since his order combined strict observance of Islamic law with the rejection of asceticism and withdrawal from the world. Claimed rank of khatm al-awliyah (seal of the saints), implying that he was a link between Muhammad and all past and future saints. Promised access to paradise without the need to give up possessions, attracting rich merchants and senior officials.