The Roman city of Thamugadi, below present‐day Timgad on the high plateau north of the Aurès Mountains in northeastern Algeria, is one of the best‐preserved and most thoroughly excavated in North Africa. Founded by Trajan in ad 100, the site had a quasi‐military appearance and proved strategic for the defence of Numidia. The population of 10 000–15 000 had a theatre, baths, a public library, and forum, the town's prosperity being based on its rich agricultural hinterland. In the late 4th century ad it became the seat of Bishop Optatus, an ardent supporter of the heretical Christian movement known as Donatism. The city was sacked by the Berbers in the early 6th century ad.
C. Courtois, 1951, Timgad, antique Thamvgadi. Alger: Imprimerie Officielle