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Cyrus (401 bc)

Alcibiades (451—404 bc) Athenian general and statesman

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Having suppressed Pissuthnes' revolt, he succeeded him as satrap of Sardis (c.413 bc), receiving overall authority in western Anatolia. Instructed to collect tribute from the Greek cities, he interfered in the Peloponnesian War, but, despite treaty‐negotiations, active co‐operation with Sparta soon dwindled (some blamed Alcibiades' influence). Cyrus' 2' arrival in 407 sidelined Tissaphernes—and the war prospered. He took revenge by accusing Cyrus of plotting against Artaxerxes 2 II (404), disputing control of Asiatic Greek cities after Cyrus had cleared himself and resumed office, and denouncing Cyrus' insurrectionary plans in 401. Prominent at Cunaxa and in the ensuing weeks (he negotiated with Cyrus' Greek generals and then murdered them at a meeting summoned to clarify and resolve mutual suspicions), he became Cyrus' effective successor in Anatolia. A demand for tribute from Ionia prompted Spartan intervention (400/399). His evasive military response and habit of diverting the Spartans against Pharnabazus finally undermined his previously considerable credit with the king, perhaps even before Agesilaus defeated his forces at Sardis (395). Invited to Phrygia, he was arrested in his bath and executed. A controversial figure, his behaviour after 399 is probably that of a deceiver whose bluff has been called rather than of a would‐be rebel.

Subjects: Classical Studies.

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