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A post-Kimmeridgian stage in the southern European Upper Jurassic, which is distinguished from the Volgian (northern Europe) by its Tethyan (see Tethys) ammonite (Ammonoidea) fauna. Earlier British stratigraphers referred to rocks formed during Tithonian time (150.8–145.5 Ma; Int. Commission on Stratigraphy, 2004) as Late Kimmeridgian and Portlandian; some also included the lowermost Purbeckian. See also malm.

Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

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