The process of using a toothbrush to remove soft deposits and provide gingival stimulation. A faulty toothbrushing technique can result in ineffective cleansing, inadequate stimulation, gingival damage, and excessive tooth abrasion. The scrub toothbrushing technique involves short horizontal brush strokes with the bristles placed at right angles to the teeth. Using the Bass technique, first described by C. C. Bass in 1948, the brush head is placed at an angle of 45° to the posterior teeth, directed towards the gingival tissues and vibrated with firm pressure using a side-to-side motion to work the bristles into the gingival crevice without the bristle tips losing contact with the gingival tissues; for the anterior teeth, the brush is held in a vertical position. Charters technique is a method of toothbrushing first documented by W. J. Charters in 1928, in which the bristles of the toothbrush are placed at a 45° angle to the tooth surface and pointed in a coronal direction with half the bristles on the gingivae and half on the teeth. Pressure is applied and the bristles are moved in a small rotational movement so that the bristles move into the interproximal spaces, remove plaque debris, and massage the gingival tissues. Fones' method is a toothbrushing technique in which, to brush the buccal and labial tooth surfaces, the teeth of the opposing jaws are placed in contact, the brush is placed at right angles to the tooth surfaces, and the brush is moved with a circular motion. This motion is repeated for the lingual and palatal surfaces with the jaws apart; the occlusal surfaces are brushed with an antero-posterior movement. Using the Stillman's method, the brush head is placed on the junction between tooth and gingivae and vibrated with short strokes. This may be terminated with a rolling action of the bristles over the tooth surface ( modified Stillman).