1 A Late Miocene age, preceded by the Serravallian, followed by the Messinian, and dated at 11.608–7.246 Ma (Int. Commission on Stratigraphy, 2004).
2 The name of the corresponding European stage, which is roughly contemporaneous with part of the Mohnian (N. America), Waiauan and lower Tongaporutuan (New Zealand), and the lower Mitchellian (Australia). The stratotype is at Tortona, Italy.
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