1 The earliest epoch in the Mississippian, preceded by the Famennian Age (Devonian), followed by the Visean Epoch, and dated at 359.2–345.3 Ma (Int. Commission on Stratigraphy, 2004). It comprises the Hastarian and Ivorian Ages.
2 The name of the corresponding European/Russian series, which is roughly contemporaneous with the lower Carboniferous Limestone (Britain), and the Kinderhookian and lower Osagean (N. America). See also dinantian.
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