The symbol for the tumor suppressor gene that encodes the p53 protein. TP53 contains 11 exons and is located at 17p13.1. Two promoters have been identified at the 5′ end of TP53. The first is 100–250 bp upstream of exon 1, and the second is in intron 1. The gene was first isolated in 1983 from mouse cells and subsequently from human, rat, rhesus monkey, cat, sheep, horse, rabbit, hamster, chicken, and Xenopus. Mutations of TP53 occur in about half of all human cancers. All of the small-cell lung carcinomas and the cancers found in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (q.v.) have TP53 mutations. When introduced into cultured cells from human cancers, the TP53 genes suppress their proliferation. See Chronology, 1983, Oren and Levine; 1990, Baker et al.; anti-oncogenes.
Subjects: Genetics and Genomics.