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training effects


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The functional physiological adaptations that have been linked with training and physical exercise. Research has shown that regular training tends to increase the following: articular cartilage thickness; adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in muscle; arterial-venous oxygen difference at maximal workload; blood lactate at maximal workload; blood volume; capillarization of muscle (including cardiac muscle); creatine phosphate in muscle fibres; diffusing capacity of the lungs at maximal workload; diphosphoglycerate in the blood; fibrolytic activity (see fibrinolysis); haemoglobin content; heart volume (see athlete's heart); heart weight; high density lipoproteins in the blood; joint mobility; lean body mass; muscle cross-sectional area; muscle glycogen content; muscle strength; myocardial contractility; myoglobin in muscle; mitochondrial size and density in muscle cells; phosphofructokinase activity in muscle mitochondria; potassium in muscle; pulmonary ventilation at maximal workload; respiratory rate at maximal workload; speed of limb movement; strength of bones and ligaments; stress tolerance; stroke volume; and succinic dehydrogenase activity in mitochondria. Regular training tends to decrease arterial blood pressure; blood cholesterol; blood lactate at a given workload; glycogen utilization; heart rate at submaximal work-loads; heart rate at rest; low density lipoproteins in the blood; myocardial infarction risks; obesity; oxygen uptake at a given workload; platelet stickiness; pulmonary ventilation for a given workload; stress; and triglycerides in the blood. Many of the effects are produced by regular, progressive aerobic training, but it must be emphasized that no one form of training will produce all the effects listed.

Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine.


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