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trans-ionospheric pulse pair


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(TIPP)

A distinctive pair of intense VHF pulses, lasting a few microseconds, first detected by the ALEXIS satellite. It was suspected that their origin lay in thunderstorms and this was subsequently confirmed by instrumentation on FORTE. They originate in intense inter-cloud lightning discharges, with the second pulse being the reflection of the first pulse from the Earth's surface, slightly delayed by the additional distance travelled.

Subjects: Meteorology and Climatology.


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