The Asian ports, especially Chinese and Japanese, that were opened to foreign trade and habitation as a result of a series of Unequal Treaties in the 19th century. In China, the first five treaty ports were opened as a result of the Treaty of Nanjing (1842), eleven more as a result of the Treaty of Tianjin (1858) and the Conventions of Beijing (1860), and approximately 35 more opened before the Chinese Revolution of 1911, some on the Yangtze River. Foreigners living in their own concessions in treaty ports had the protection of their home governments and were not required to pay Chinese taxes or to be subject to Chinese laws. This was strongly resented by the nationalist government and all privileges were surrendered by 1943. After the Treaty of Kanagawa (1858), Japan established five treaty ports, but foreign powers were obliged to surrender their privileges in 1899.
Subjects: World History.