The university, founded in 1477, became a centre of Lutheran orthodoxy when Württemberg was made Protestant by Duke Ulrich in 1534–5. The 18th-cent. ‘Tübingen School’ of theology was characterized by a ‘biblical supranaturalism’ which put the guarantee of Christ and the Apostles in the place of the orthodox Protestant doctrine of the inspiration of Scripture and regarded the Bible as the exclusive source and law book of Christianity, from which the tenets of the faith were to be derived by deductive methods. In the 19th cent. another school of theology was founded by F. C. Baur (see Tübingen School). A Catholic faculty of theology was opened in 1817; it has been characterized by a combination of historical and speculative methods, and by its emphasis on the need to relate modern thought to the data of faith.