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A form of gymnastics pioneered by German ‘Turnvater’ Jahn in the early 19th century, intended to develop both individual physique and strength of character. The organized gymnastic groups going by the collective name of Turnen came to represent not just a form of exercise training but a political philosophy stressing collective homogenization and nationalist aspirations, and so influencing conceptions of sport in the united Germany of the later 19th century and beyond.

Subjects: Sport and Leisure.

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