Twenty-One Demands

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The Japanese attempt to impose domination on China in January 1915. Taking advantage of its favourable international position after entering World War I on the Allied side and capturing the German base of Qingdao on the Chinese mainland, Japan attempted to impose virtual protectorate status on China, which was diplomatically isolated and torn by civil war. Although one group of demands dealing with the appointment of Japanese advisers throughout the Chinese government was not enforced, threat of war left China no choice but to concede the others, including extension of Japanese leases in Manchuria, takeover of former German concessions in Jiaozhou, substantial interests in Chinese mining concerns, and an embargo on future coastal territorial concessions to any other foreign power. The Twenty‐One Demands greatly extended Japanese power in China, but provoked serious resentment within China and aroused US fears of Japanese expansionism.

Subjects: World History — Contemporary History (Post 1945).

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