Type of cabaret est. in Berlin on 18 Jan. 1901 until 1902 by the writer Ernst von Wolzogen (librettist of Strauss's Feuersnot), in assoc. with the poets Bierbaum and Wedekind. Their aim was to raise standard of variety theatre by mimes, poems recited with mus., etc. Mus. contributions from such composers as Oscar Straus, Zemlinsky, and Schoenberg (whose Pierrot Lunaire of 1912 demonstrates the surviving influence of the cabaret).