(Pāli, Uddaka Rāmaputta).
One of the Buddha's first two teachers, the other being Āḷāra Kālāma. Udraka taught the Buddha a meditational practice leading to a state of trance known as ‘neither-perception-nor-non-perception,’ a condition of pure awareness devoid of any perceptual experience. When the Buddha mastered this technique, Udraka offered to become his student, but the Buddha declined and left the group. Udraka's teaching were rejected by the Buddha since they lead to only a temporary release from suffering and not to the permanent liberation of nirvāṇa. However, the state of trance attained through his teachings later became incorporated into the Buddhist scheme of meditation as the last of the eight dhyānas (Pāli, jhāna).