Formed in 1913, as the military back‐up to Ulster loyalist resistance to the third Home Rule Bill, the UVF achieved success in the Larne gun‐running. It ceased with the First World War, but its veterans were the basis of the Ulster Special Constabulary, formed in 1920–1. The name was resuscitated in the mid‐1960s for a secret protestant paramilitary force. Outlawed in the 1970s, it remained less popular and active than the Ulster Defence Army (UDA), with which it frequently clashed.
Subjects: Regional and National History — Literature.